Main authors: Jane Brandt, Giovanni Quaranta, Rosanna Salvia, Gottlieb Basch, Fernando Teixeira, Marie Wesselink, Julie Lemesle, Antonio Ferreira, Adelcia Viego, Jorge Mataix Solera, Fuensanta Garcia, Costas Kosmas, Orestis Kairis, Chrysa Aratzioglou, Matjaž Glavan, Zoltán Tóth, Olga Vizitiu, Irina Calciu, Jerzy Lipiec, Magdalena Frąc, Boguslaw Usowicz, Endla Reitam, Minggang Xu, Haimei Fu, Hongzhu Fan.
iSQAPERiS Editor: Jane Brandt
Source document: Brandt, J. et al. (2020) Demonstration of recommended agricultural management practices and SQAPP in the iSQAPER study sites. iSQAPER Project Deliverable 6.4 (additional) 71 pp

 

Here we give an overview of the responses to the questionnaires. The full data will be used to further refine SQAPP, help tailor the promotion of SQAPP according to the particular interests of the different stakeholder groups and more broadly analyse the multi-level perspectives expressed within the context of sustainable transitions. However the collated summaries of the questionnaire responses for many of the study sites are given in Annex 1 and the full questionnaire results in Annex 2 of the »full report.

For each question we have grouped the responses into about 10 types but, for this report, have not differentiated between responses from different actor types (farmers, advisors, researchers, students) nor between genders. Gender disaggregated responses to the questions are given in the »iSQAPER 4th and final gender equality and diversity report.

Most people gave only one response to each question but where there were two, both were counted. The responses have been separately analysed for Europe and China and ranked in decreasing order of frequency of European responses. Examples of comments from the three most frequent response types are given.

Contents table
Question 3: What actions do you take (in your job or otherwise) to protect the soil?  
Question 4: What is your motivation for these actions?
Question 5 What would enable you to do more?
Question 6 What prevents you from doing more?
Question 7 For the management practice of to be widely adopted in this area, what issues do you think would have to be addressed?
Question 8 What aspect of the SQAPP app interests you most?
Question 9: Are there any improvements or changes you think should be made to SQAPP to make it a tool that you would use regularly?

Question 3: What actions do you take (in your job or otherwise) to protect the soil?

 D6.4 Q03

The three most frequent response types from the Europeans were

  1. Specific no till, crop rotation, straw returning technology “I use mineral fertilizers rationally, I use composts to improve the content of organic matter, no-tillage cultivation and crop rotation.” (male mushroom farmer, Poland)
  2. Specific precision technology “Optimal fertilization, control of water suitability for irrigation.” (female agronomist, Crete)
  3. Educate, advice “I advise about SLMs and we promote waste incorporation, crop rotation, green manure with autumn growing crops (leguminous crops). I buy as well organic products.” (male technical consultant, Portuguese Agriculture Ministry)

The three most frequent response types from the Chinese were

  1. Research “Soil testing and fertilization project and control paddy field acidification." (male government official, Qiyang/Gongzhuling).
  2. Dissemination, awareness raising “Study soil nutrient changes and provide a theoretical basis for fertilizer reduction.” (female researcher, Qiyang/Gongzhuling)
  3. Specific no till, crop rotation, straw returning technology “I use protective tillage and straw returning.” (male farmer, Suining)

Question 4: What is your motivation for these actions?

D6.4 Q04

The three most frequent response types from the Europeans were

  1. Sustainability, protect soil against threats, biodiversity “To be more ecologically sound and economically efficient.” (male farmer, Slovenia)
  2. Soil quality, soil fertility “To increase the content of humus in the soil.” (female teacher, Poland)
  3. Economic, improve yield, crop management “Low costs and/or high levels of crop yields.” (male farmer, Romania)

The three most frequent response types from the Chinese were the same, but in the reverse order

  1. Economic, improve yield, crop management “Improve soil fertility and increase production.” (male farmer, Suining)
  2. Soil quality, soil fertility “Soil fertility to ensure sustainable use of soil.” (male researcher, Qiyang/Gongzhuling)
  3. Sustainability, protect soil against threats, biodiversity “Reduce carbon dioxide emissions.” (female researcher, Qiyang/Gongzhuling)

Question 5 What would enable you to do more?

D6.4 Q05

The three most frequent response types from the Europeans were

  1. Knowledge, information “Always having more information about protecting soil.” (male city mayor, France)
  2. Subsidy, grants, higher yield, income “Having a future job.” (male student in practical training, Crete)
  3. Training, advice “More applicable knowledge and good practices.” (female public agriculture extension advisor, Slovenia)

As with the previous question, the three most frequent response types from the Chinese were the same, but in the reverse order

  1. Training, advice “Get some professional guidance on the amount of organic fertilizer.“ (female farmer, Suining)
  2. Subsidy, grants, higher yield, income “Get government incentives, a professional research guide.” (male researcher, Suining)
  3. Knowledge, information “In-depth study on the application of organic fertilizer.” (male researcher, Qiyang/Gongzhuling)

Question 6 What prevents you from doing more?

D6.4 Q06

The three most frequent response types from the Europeans were

  1. Money, lack of support, uncertainty of income “The investment is too expensive for me.” (male farmer, Estonia)
  2. Knowledge “Lack of knowledge in soil contamination with chemicals.” (male farmer from a farmers’ association, Romania)
  3. No obstacles, don’t know, no answer “No obstacles.” (female agronomist-researcher, Crete)

The three most frequent response types from the Chinese were

  1. If better yields with lower costs “Green manure is time-consuming and labour-intensive, with low returns and low rate of farmers' acceptance.” (male, agro-technician, Qiyang/Gongzhuling)
  2. Money, lack of support, uncertainty of income “I don't have enough money to support the expansion of production.” (male farmer, Qiyang/Gongzhuling)
  3. No cooperation, lack of knowledge of farmers and public “Farmers have low enthusiasm and low cooperation.” (female agro-government, Suining)

Question 7 For the management practice of to be widely adopted in this area, what issues do you think would have to be addressed?

D6.4 Q07

The three most frequent response types from the Europeans were

  1. Guidance and training “More information about how to apply, their benefits and consequences and aspects of legislation about sludge incorporation.” (Incorporation of composted sewage sludge: female farmer, Portugal)
  2. Promotion “There should be more demonstration events about no-tillage sowers. Also more dissemination about the advantages and disadvantages of no-till farming.” (No tillage - male researcher, Estonia)
  3. Knowledge “More actions towards awareness rising of general population.” (Wide crop rotation/organic farming/organic manure - female ministry employee, Slovenia)

The three most frequent response types from the Chinese were

  1. Policies and subsidies “Vigorously develop mechanization and give farmers subsidies.” (Organic matter amendments - male agro-technician, Qiyang/Gongzhuling)
  2. Training and guidance “Transforming farmers' attitudes toward new technologies.” (Organic matter amendments male agro-environment technician, Suining)
  3. Promotion “More promotion and publicity for farmers to accept.” (Organic matter amendments female agro-technician, Qiyang/Gongzhuling)

Question 8 What aspect of the SQAPP app interests you most?

D6.4 Q08

The three most frequent response types from the Europeans were

  1. Data provided on soil properties “The availability of soil data for specific area.” (male agronomist, Crete)
  2. Management recommendations “Tips on how to improve soils.” (male farmer, Slovenia)
  3. Soil quality evaluation provided “Fast results about soil quality." (male student, Estonia)

The three most frequent response types from the Chinese were

  1. Data provided on soil properties “The database is very powerful.” (male farmer, Qiyang/Gongzhuling)
  2. Potential to add own data “All users can update the data.” (female researcher Qiyang/Gongzhuling)
  3. (equally): Soil quality evaluation and Accessibility of data, ease of use “I can know the quality of my farmland by the APP.” (female farmer, Qiyang/Gongzhuling) “Data download is very convenient.” (male agro-technician Qiyang/Gongzhuling)

Question 9: Are there any improvements or changes you think should be made to SQAPP to make it a tool that you would use regularly?

D6.4 Q09

The most frequently requested improvement from users in both Europe and China was to have more of the text translated from English into their own language. The two other most frequently requested improvements from the Europeans were

2. User input data “Inputs from users should be checked by experts since there is always a risk for not valid data or data entry mistakes.” (female agronomist, Crete)
3. More specific recommendations for local methods/practices “Recommendations that are more suitable in Estonian conditions.” (female student, Estonia)

The two other most frequently requested improvements from the Chinese were

2. Android version Because, at the time of testing, SQAPP was only available on Apple’s App Store in China, the second most frequent request was for an Android version of the app.
3. Soil data temporal/spatial resolution “I think it needs improvement in accuracy.” (male researcher, Qiyang/Gongzhuling)

 


Notes:

The full report contains all the questionnaire responses

Section 2.3 of the following report contains gender disaggregated analysis of the questionnaire responses

 

Go To Top