|Main authors:||Gergely Tóth (Joint Research Centre), Xiaodong Song (Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences), Tamás Hermann (University of Pannonia), Brigitta Tóth (University of Pannonia)|
|Source document:||Tóth, G.. et al. (2016) Hierarchical and multi-scale pedoclimatic zonation. iSQAPER Project Deliverable 2.1 125 pp|
Descriptions of the main pedological features is provided in this section, which is largely based on
- Soil Map of the European Communities 1:1 000 000 (CEC 1985)
- Lecture Notes on the Major Soils of the World (FAO 2001)
- World reference base for soil resources (FAO 1998) and
- Soils of the European Union (Tóth et al. 2008).
|1. Reference Soil Groups|
|2. Main features of Reference Soil Groups, the pedological determinants of pedoclimatic zones|
Based on the concept of dominant identifiers, i.e. the soil forming factors or processes that most clearly condition the soil formation Reference Soil Groups of the WRB are aggregated in 10 sets (Table, based on FAO 2001). Main characteristics of soil formation associated to each set holds information on the soil processes which can be utilized for modeling soil functions and soil use.
Table: Sets of Reference Soil Groups based on WRB 1998 (FAO 2001)
|SET #||Main feature||Reference Soil Group (RSG)||RSG code|
|SET #1||Organic soils||»HISTOSOLS*||HS|
|SET #2||Mineral soils whose formation was conditioned by human influences (not confined to any particular region)||»ANTHROSOLS*||AT|
|SET #3||Mineral soils whose formation was conditioned by their parent material||»ANDOSOLS*||AN|
|- Soils developed in volcanic material||»ARENOSOLS*||AR|
|- Soils developed in residual and shifting sands||»VERTISOLS*||VR|
|- Soils developed in expanding clays|
|SET #4||Mineral soils whose formation was conditioned by the topography/physiography of the terrain||»FLUVISOLS*||FL|
|- Soils in lowlands (wetlands) with level topography||»GLEYSOLS*||GL|
|- Soils in elevated regions with non-level topography||»LEPTOSOLS*||LP|
|SET #5||Mineral soils whose formation is conditioned by their limited age (not confined to any particular region)||»CAMBISOLS*||CM|
|SET #6||Mineral soils whose formation was conditioned by climate: (sub-)humid tropics||PLINTHOSOLS||PT|
|SET #7||Mineral soils whose formation was conditioned by climate: arid and semi-arid regions||»SOLONCHAKS*||SC|
|SET #8||Mineral soils whose formation was conditioned by climate: steppes and steppic regions||»KASTANOZEMS*||KS|
|SET #9||Mineral soils whose formation was conditioned by climate: (sub-)humid temperate regions||»PODZOLS*||PZ|
|SET #10||Mineral soils whose formation was conditioned by climate: permafrost regions||CRYOSOLS||CR|
* Reference Soil Groups found in Europe.
Spatial extent of Reference Soil Groups represent the major units of pedoclimatic zones. These are further differentiated by the second level soil qualifyiers to enhance pedological information within the pedoclimatic zones. Click the links in the table for an introduction to the major features of the Reference Soil Groups. These summaries build on previous assessents on the soils of Europe, notably on the reports of the Soil Resources in Europe (Jones et al. 2005), the Soils of The European Union (Tóth et al 2008.) and the Soil Atlas of Europe (ESBN-EC 2005).
Note: For full references to papers quoted in this article see