|Main authors:||Tamás Kismányoky, Tamás Hermann, Brigitta Tóth, Gergely Tóth, Oihane Fernandez-Ugalde, Minggang Xu, Wang Fei, Thomas Caspari, Zhanguo Bai, Xiaodong Song|
|Source document:||Kismányoky, T. et al. (2016) Classification of farming systems across Europe and China. iSQAPER Project Deliverable 2.2 21 pp|
|1. Aim of farming system classification in the iSQAPER project|
|2. List of the crops and livestock types for EU and China|
|3. The proposed farming system classification for the purpose of the iSQAPER project|
The classification of farming systems has been traditionally based on the available natural resource base and the dominant pattern of farm activities and household livelihoods, taking into account the main technologies used, which determine the intensity of production and integration of crops, livestock and other activities. Different approaches to farming system classification were analysed and the best-for-the purpose classification was integrated with the pedo-climatic zones concept. Apart from traditional farming system classifications, which are based on combined land cover and land use descriptions, the feasibility of management-based classification was assessed. Hierarchical classification is provided to enable multi-scale analysis as well as to facilitate the implementation of the Soil Quality App in diverse environmental conditions in a clear, hence comprehensive structure.
Preconditions for developing farming system classification in iSQAPER:
- farming systems should be applicable within the pedo-climatic zones,
- proper data should be available,
- farming systems should be suitable to the Soil Quality App.
Primary functions of the iSQAPER farming system classification:
- best for-purpose classification within a comprehensive structure,
- possibilities to enhance and/or combine land use description (classes),
- hierarchical classification to enable multiscale analysis,
- thematic competency with the pedo-climatic zones concept,
- data interoperability with expected outputs of the pedo-climatic zonation,
- feasibility for enhancement with management based classification,
- available IT support facilities with regular updating to the implementation of the Soil Quality App.
The following information can be used to derive farming system classification.
Table 1: List of crop and livestock types for EU and China
|1. ARABLE||1.1. Non irrigated||1.1.1. Cereals: Wheat, Barley, Sorghum, Millets, Oats
1.1.4. Pulses: Soybean, Peas, Been, Lentil, Other (Groundnut, Pigeonpea, Cowpea)
1.1.5. Oil crops: Sunflower, Oilseed rape, Oilcrops, Other
1.1.6. Fodder crops: Alfalfa, Red clover, Other
1.1.7. Roots and tubers: Potato, Sugarbeet, Sweet potato, Yam
1.1.8. Fiber crops: Cotton, Fiber, Other
1.1.10. Cassava (manioka)
|1.2. Irrigated||(the same subdivisions as above)|
|2. PERMANENT CROPS||2.1. Vineyards
2.2. Fruit trees and berry plantation
2.3. Olive groves
2.5. Oil Palm
|3. PASTURES||3.1. Extensive
|4. LIVESTOCK||4.1. Cattle
Proper classification of farming systems tailored for the need of the iSQAPER project is created based on the assessment of the different kind of farming systems discussed in »Existing classifications of farming systems.
The cropping system used for the iSQAPER project is mostly in line with the first level categories of EUROSTAT (EC, 2000), except kitchen garden, other land and combined secondary cropping categories that are omitted and some types are contracted or simplified or not fully covered in the project due to lack of information compatible with the scale and details of pedoclimatic maps.
For classification based on crop production and land use, the CORINE database provides the best option for Europe. Its applicability for the analysis of pedo-climatic zones and farming system divisions is supposed to be the most successful among all above described options, because of the comprehensive spatial coverage and 100 m resolution of the CORINE data for Europe. For China land cover information is available from Global Land Cover (GLC30) (Chen et al., 2015; Han et al., 2015).
Further information about croplands is available from the MapSpam Cropland dataset (http://mapspam.info/) (You et al., 2014). It provides information about crop area, yield and production for 20 most important crops. The maps are globally available in 5 arc minute grid resolution. Farming system classes can be further amended by information on animal breeding using the Global Distribution of Livestock dataset (http://www.livestock.geo-wiki.org) (Robinson et al., 2014).
The recommended farming system classification thus includes a crop production system component, which might be refined by crop types, and an additional livestock component for possible extension with animal husbandry aspects.
The following farming system classification is based on CORINE and it can be analysed for arable land and heterogeneous agricultural area categories in combination with data from the MapSpam Cropland dataset (You et al., 2014) and Global Distribution of Livestock data (Robinson et al., 2011, 2014).
The livestock component of the farming system classification and analysis is based on the Global Distribution of Livestock dataset (Robinson et al., 2014). This dataset includes information on livestock density with 1×1 km or 5×5 km resolution by major groups of animal species.
Table 2: Proposed categories of the farming system for iSQAPER
|1. ARABLE (farming systems according to the crop rotations highlighting the most important crops in the crop rotation)||1.1. Cereals||1.1.1. non-irrigated
1.1.2. permanently irrigated
|1.2. Rice||1.2.1. non-irrigated
1.2.2. permanently irrigated
|1.3. Maize||1.3.1. non-irrigated
1.3.2. permanently irrigated
|1.4. Legumes||1.4.1. non-irrigated
1.4.2. permanently irrigated
|1.5. Oil crops||1.5.1. non-irrigated
1.5.2. permanently irrigated
|1.6. Fodder crops||1.6.1. non-irrigated
1.6.2. permanently irrigated
|1.7. Root crops||1.7.1. non-irrigated
1.7.2. permanently irrigated
|1.8. Vegetables||1.8.1. non-irrigated
1.8.2. permanently irrigated
|2. PERMANENT CROPS||2.1. Vineyards|
|2.2. Fruit trees and berry plantation|
|2.3. Olive groves|
|2.5. Oil Palm|
|2.8. Agro-forestry areas|
|3. PASTURES||3.1. Extensive|
|4. LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS (main farming systems: pasture or mixed farms (with arable))||4.1. Dairy cattle|
|4.2. Beef and mixed cattle|
|4.3. Sheep and goats|
Note: For full references to papers quoted in this article see